In order to achieve effective Human Resource Planning, the duties involved and the skills required for performing all the jobs in an organization have to be taken care of. This knowledge is gained through job analysis.
Job analysis was almost non-existent three decades ago. The major thrust behind job analysis has been the civil rights movement which requires that the factors governing hiring, firing, and promoting should be job related.
The only means of establishing this job-related factor has been to identify what the job entails and what an incumbent worker must possess to perform successfully on the job. Job analysis helps to establish this.
Meaning and Definition:-
In simple terms, job analysis may be understood as a process of collecting information about a job. The process of job analysis results in two sets of data: (i) job description (ii) Job specification. These data are recorded separately for references.
A few definitions on job analysis are quoted below:
- Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job description and job specifications.
- Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job.
- … A job is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the production of some product or service provided by the organization. Each job has certain ability requirements (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. Job analysis is the process used to identify these requirements.
Specifically, job analysis involves the following steps:
- Collecting and recording job information.
- Checking the job information for accuracy.
- Writing job description based on the information.
- Using the information to determine the skills, abilities and knowledge that are required on the job.
- Updating the information from time to time.